VDR: (the vitamin D receptor) is a nuclear receptor protein that binds 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D to activate a signaling molecule that is believed to have important roles in a 3rd of the human genome. Some functions that are known are xenobiotic detoxification.
BHMT: (betaine-homocysteine methylatransferase) is a transferase enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from betaine to homocysteine, which produces methionine. Other enzymatic roles for BHMT is the choline oxidation processes. This enzyme is found in the liver and kidney.
COMT: (catechol-O-methyltransferase) functions in the nerve cells, liver, kidneys, and red blood cells. Its role is to help inactivate 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiols, and catecholamine hormones prior to excretion of bile. COMT is also found in the CNS where its role is the degradation of catecholamine neurotransmitters.
MAO A: (monoamine oxidase type A) its main role is to detoxify biological and xenobiotic amines. This enzyme also degrades neurotransmitters in both the central and peripheral nervous system.
AHCY: (adenosylhomocysteinase) an enzyme that breaks down methionine by converting S-adenosylhomocysteinase into homocysteine. This reaction regulates the methylation of other compounds.
CBS: (cystathionine beta-synthase) this enzyme is responsible for using vitamin B6 to convert serine and homocysteine into cystothionine which will be later converted into cysteine.
MTHFR: (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) enzyme responsible for the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. This reaction allows for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine.
MTR: (methionine synthase) enzyme that catalyzes the re-methylation of homocysteine to methionine using the methyl-B-12 as a cofactor.
MTRR: (methionine synthase reductase) responsible for the regeneration of methyl-B-12.
SHMT: (serine hydroxymethyltransferase) responsible for catalyzing the interconversion of glycine to serine.
SUOX: (sulfite oxidase) mitochondrial enzyme responsible for oxidizing sulfites to sulfates. Sulfites are produced by the transsulfuration cycle or from diet.